Harley Hahn's
Internet Advisor


Chapter 17...

How to Do Stuff

In this chapter, I will show you how to perform a number of procedures that are necessary from time to time as you use the Internet. I explain each procedure as a series of steps for you to follow in sequence. As you do, go slowly and take a moment to think about the steps. I want you to know more than simply how to do stuff; I want you to understand how things work.

Throughout the book, I have referenced this chapter in various places. At the beginning of each procedure, I will show you the places in the book that reference that procedure. This will allow you to refer to the text if you need more information.

It is possible that the instructions in this chapter may differ slightly from what you should use with your computer. This may be the case if you are using an old version of Windows or an old browser.

If you are using an old browser, I suggest that you upgrade to the latest version. The following resources will help you.

Windows itself is different. There is no need to upgrade. Wait until you get a new computer, which will come with the latest version of Windows pre-installed.

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Windows...
How to Set the Date and Time
on Your Computer

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 5 and Appendix B.

  1. Click on the Start button.
  2. Point to Settings, and click on Control Panel.
  3. Within the Control Panel, double-click on Date/Time. Windows will display a window showing you the date and time. To display the time zone, click on the Time Zone tab.
  4. Make any necessary adjustments.
  5. Click on the OK button.

See Appendix B for:

  • Information on how time zones are used on the Internet
  • How to find a program to maintain the correct time and date on your computer automatically

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Windows...
How to Use the Clipboard

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7.

The CLIPBOARD is an invisible storage area maintained by Windows to allow you to copy or move information from one place to another, even between windows. You can use the clipboard to copy almost any type of data that can be displayed on your screen, including text and pictures.

In general terms, here is how it works. You select some information and then copy it to the clipboard. You then move to a new location (which can be in another window), and copy the information from the clipboard to that location.

Here are the details:

  1. Go to the window that contains the information you wish to copy.
  2. Click your mouse at the beginning of the information you want to copy.
  3. Select (highlight) all the information you want to go into the clipboard. To do so, you can use either your mouse or your keyboard. To use your mouse, hold down the left button and move the mouse pointer over the data you want to select. To use your keyboard, hold down the Shift key and use another key (Left, Right, Up, Down, PageUp, PageDown) to move the cursor over the data you want to select.

Once the information is selected, you can either copy or cut it to the clipboard. If you COPY, it does not change the selected information; if you CUT, it removes the selected information as it is copied to the clipboard.

  1. To copy, pull down the Edit menu and choose Copy. To cut, pull down the Edit menu and choose Cut. The data is now in your clipboard.

Now that the information is in the clipboard, you can PASTE it into a new location.

  1. Move to where you want to paste the contents of the clipboard. This location can be in the same window or in a different window.
  2. Click your mouse at the exact position where you want to insert the data.
  3. Pull down the Edit menu and choose Paste.

— hint —

Most Windows programs support copy, cut and paste capabilities, which means you can copy information from one program to another. However, pasting is only allowed when it would make sense to do so: you can't paste unless the information in the clipboard is useable in the destination window.

For example, you can't paste a word processing document into your browser window. However, you can paste a URL into the address bar of your browser, and you can paste text from your browser into your word processor.

From time to time, you may make a mistake while using the clipboard. For example, you might choose Cut when you meant to choose Copy. In some cases, you can fix such a mistake. When you do, we say you UNDO the mistake.

To do so, pull down the Edit menu and choose Undo. In most cases, this will reverse the last change you made. For example, if you cut the wrong information from a file, undo will get the information back. However, be sure to undo the mistake right away, before you perform another operation.

If you like shortcuts, there are two fast ways to copy, cut and paste without using the Edit menu.

First, when you are ready to copy or cut, you can right-click on the selected data (click the right mouse button). This will display a menu from which you can choose Copy or Cut. After you move to the place where you want to paste, you can right-click again. This will display a menu from which you can choose Paste.

The second set of shortcuts is to use the keyboard as follows:

Operation Shortcut Key
CopyCtrl-C
CutCtrl-X
PasteCtrl-V
UndoCtrl-Z

Personally, I always use these shortcuts, as they are a lot faster than using the mouse to pull down the Edit menu. Be sure to remember Ctrl- Z, as it is a particularly easy way to undo a mistake.

— hint —

Many programs allow you to undo mistakes that go beyond simple cutting and pasting, and some programs even allow you to undo multiple changes, one after the other.

For example, word processing programs usually allow you to reverse a whole stream of changes. This is handy when you realize you want to undo the last ten things you have done. Just press Ctrl-Z repeatedly. Each time you do, one more change will be reversed.

Once you copy or cut something, it stays in the clipboard until you replace it with new data (or until you turn off the computer). This means you can paste the same data over and over.

However, you must be careful. The clipboard is meant to be a temporary storage area, and it can only hold one thing at a time. As soon as you put new information into the clipboard — even a single character — it replaces all the previous information. For this reason, it is safer to copy, not cut. That way, if you make a mistake, you still have the original.

Cutting is faster when you want to move data, and you know you do not need to preserve the original. However, if you are working with large amounts of data, especially in different windows, it is better to copy. Then, after you have verified that the data is safely pasted, you can return to the original location and delete what you don't need.

If you want to see what is in the clipboard, you can use a program called the CLIPBOARD VIEWER. When you run Clipboard Viewer, it creates a new window that will show you the information currently in the clipboard. Whenever you copy or cut new information, you will see the contents of the window change.

Here is how to run the Clipboard Viewer:

  1. Click on the Start button.
  2. Point to Programs, then Accessories, then click on Clipboard Viewer.

Using the Clipboard Viewer is an excellent way to teach yourself what happens when you copy, cut and paste. Just start the program, run a few experiments and see what happens.

Once you understand the clipboard, there is really no need to use the Clipboard Viewer. In general, you only need the contents of the clipboard for a short time — usually a few seconds — and it is just not practical to check the Clipboard Viewer every time you copy or cut.

Remember, however, since the clipboard can hold only one thing at a time, even a simple mistake will wipe out the entire contents. So do be careful.

— hint —

Once data becomes invisible, it is easy to lose.

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Windows...
How to Change Your Mouse
to Be Left-handed

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 7.

  1. Click on the Start button.
  2. Point to Settings, and click on Control Panel.
  3. Within the Control Panel, double-click on Mouse. You will see the mouse settings panel.
  4. On the Buttons page, under Button configuration, click on left-handed.
  5. Click on the OK button.

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Internet Explorer...
How to Control the Appearance
of Your Browser

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 7 and Chapter 10.

There are two different ways to control which toolbars are visible:

  • Pull down the View menu and point to Toolbars.

or:

  • Right-click on an empty area of one of the toolbars.

In either case, you will see a list of toolbars. Select the name of a toolbar. Doing this acts as an off/on switch.

You can also choose which buttons appear on the Standard toolbar and control how they look:

or:

  • Pull down the View menu, point to Toolbars, and select Customize.
  • Right-click on an empty area of one of the toolbars and select Customize.

Finally, you can turn the status bar (at the bottom of the browser window) off and on:

  • Pull down the View menu and select Status Bar. This acts as an off/on switch.

In most cases, Internet Explorer will remember the settings and maintain them the next time you start the program. This is not the case, however, for the Radio toolbar (with Internet Explorer version 5). If you want to always have it visible when you start your browser, you need to turn it on (with View) and set an option. To set the option:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the Advanced tab.
  3. Under the Multimedia section, turn on the option Always show Internet Explorer Radio bar.
  4. Click on the OK button.

Why do you need to set an option for this particular toolbar?

When you show the Radio toolbar, it causes Internet Explorer to pre-load the program used to listen to radio stations (Windows Media Player). On some systems, this may slow down the starting of Internet Explorer. For this reason, the browser will not show the Radio toolbar automatically unless you deliberately set the option.

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Internet Explorer...
How to Tell Your Browser to
Not Underline Links

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 7.

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the Advanced tab.
  3. Look under the Browsing section for Underline Links.
  4. Click on Never or Hover. (If you click on Hover, a link will be underlined only when you point to it.)
  5. Click on the OK button.

Note: If the current page does not change, you may need to reload it to see the changes.

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Internet Explorer...
How to Change the Cache Settings

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 7.

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the General tab.
  3. Under Temporary Internet Files, click on the Settings button.
  4. Make whatever changes you want. (If you are not sure what you are doing, write down the original settings, so you can restore them if necessary.)
  5. Click on the OK button.
  6. To close the Internet Options window, click on the OK button.

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Internet Explorer 6...
How to Control and Delete Cookies

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 12.

To change the cookie settings:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the Privacy tab.
  3. On the left side of the Settings section, you will see a small bar that can slide up and down. To move the bar, point to it, hold down the left-mouse button, and move your mouse up and down. As you move the bar, you will see the privacy setting change. Choose the one you want.
  4. If you want to override the automatic settings, click on the Advanced button. Make your choices and then click on the OK button. You will see reference to two types of cookies. "First-party cookies" are those that are sent to your computer by the Web site you are visiting. "Third-party cookies" are sent from a different source, for example, a computer run by a third-party advertising company.
  5. To close the Internet Options window, click on the OK button.

To look at your cookies within the cache:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the General tab.
  3. Under Temporary Internet Files, click on the Settings button. Internet Explorer will create a new window named Settings.
  4. Within this window, click on the View Files tab. Internet Explorer will create a new window showing you the contents of your cache directory.
  5. Within this window, look for your cookies. (Most cookies have names that begin with "Cookie".)
  6. When you are finished, close the cache directory window. (Click on the close button in the top right-hand corner of the window or press Alt-F4.)
  7. To close the Settings window, click on the Cancel button (so you don't accidentally change a setting).
  8. To close the Internet Options window, click on the OK button.

To delete your cookies:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the General tab.
  3. Under Temporary Internet Files, click on the Delete Cookies button.
  4. Within this window, click on the View Files tab. Internet Explorer will create a new window showing you the contents of your cache directory.
  5. Within this window, look for your cookies. (Most cookies have names that begin with "Cookie".)
  6. When you are finished, close the cache directory window. (Click on the close button in the top right-hand corner of the window or press Alt-F4.)
  7. To close the Settings window, click on the Cancel button (so you don't accidentally change a setting).
  8. To close the Internet Options window, click on the OK button.

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Internet Explorer 5.5 or older...
How to Control and Delete Cookies.

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 12.

To change the cookie settings:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the Security tab.
  3. In the content zone window near the top, click on Internet.
  4. Click on the Custom Level tab. Internet Explorer will display a new window named Security Settings.
  5. Within this window, scroll down until you see the Cookies heading. You will see various cookie-related settings. (If there are no settings visible, double-click on Cookies.)
  6. Make whatever changes you want. (If you are not sure what you are doing, write down the original settings, so you can restore them if necessary.)
  7. Click on the OK button.
  8. Internet Explorer will display a dialog box, asking you to confirm that you want to change the security settings. Click on the Yes box.

Internet Explorer keeps two copies of each cookie. The first copy is in your cache (see Chapter 7). The cache consists of a collection of files stored in a directory named Temporary Internet Files. This directory lies in the Windows directory. That is:

C:\Windows\Temporary Internet Files

A duplicate of each cookie is kept in a directory called Cookies, also within the Windows directory:

C:\Windows\Cookies

To look at your cookies within the cache:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Internet Options.
  2. Click on the General tab.
  3. Under Temporary Internet Files, click on the Settings button. Internet Explorer will create a new window named Settings.
  4. Within this window, click on the View Files tab. Internet Explorer will create a new window showing you the contents of your cache directory.
  5. Within this window, look for your cookies. (All cookies have names that begin with "Cookie".)
  6. When you are finished, close the cache directory window. (Click on the close button in the top right-hand corner of the window or press Alt-F4.)
  7. To close the Settings window, click on the Cancel button (so you don't accidentally change a setting).
  8. To close the Internet Options window, click on the OK button.

To get rid of your cookies, you must use Windows Explorer to delete the cookie files from both directories.

C:\Windows\Temporary Internet Files
C:\Windows\Cookies

It is not enough to delete the files in the Cookies directory.

— hint —

Note: It is possible to tell Internet Explorer to clean out the cache for you. (Look on the General tab in the Internet Options.) However, doing so will delete only regular files, not cookies. You must delete the cookies yourself.

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Internet Explorer...
How to Customize the Search Facility

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 11.

You can customize the Search Assistant by choosing which search engines it uses. To do so:

  1. Click on the Search button to open the Explorer bar.
  2. Within the Explorer bar, click on the Customize button. Internet Explorer will open a new window named Customize Search Settings.
  3. At the top of the window, select the first choice: Use the Search Assistant for smart searching.
  4. Just below, make sure that Find a Web page is selected.
  5. Under Find a Web Page, choose the search engines you want to use, by clicking on boxes so that a checkmark appears next to the ones you want. When you choose a search engine, its name will appear in the list within the little window to the left.
  6. The Search Assistant will access the search engines in the order they appear in this list. To change the position of a search engine within the list, click on the name and then click one of the small up or down arrows below the list.
  7. When you are finished, click the OK button.

Question: Can you tell the Search Assistant to use a search engine that is not one of the choices?

Answer: No, because that company didn't make a marketing deal with Microsoft.

— hint —

If you are outside the United States, you may find that you don't have much choice in the list of search engines. If so, change your country to the United States temporarily.

(Click on the Start button, select Settings, then Control Panel. Then double-click on Regional Options or Regional Settings.)

Once you reboot, Windows will think you are in the U.S., and you will have a lot more search engines from which to choose. After you finish customizing your search settings, you can reset your computer back to your home country. Don't worry, you won't lose your search settings.

The second way to customize the search facility is to skip the Search Assistant and use only one search engine. To do so:

  1. Click on the Search button to open the Explorer bar.
  2. Within the Explorer bar, click on the Customize button. Internet Explorer will open a new window named Customize Search Settings.
  3. At the top of the window, select the second choice: Use one search service for all searches. Internet Explorer will display a small window with a list of search engines.
  4. Within that window, click on the search engine you want to use.
  5. Click on the OK button.

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Internet Explorer...
How to Specify Which Search Engine
to Use for Address Bar Searches

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 11.

You can perform simple searches by typing a search request directly into the address bar. In its simplest form, such a request consists of a ? (question mark) character followed by a list of search words. When you press Enter, your browser will automatically submit the words to a search engine and then display the results.

To specify which search engine will be used for such requests:

  1. Click on the Search button to open the Explorer bar.
  2. Within the Explorer bar, click on the Customize button. Internet Explorer will open a new window named Customize Search Settings.
  3. At the bottom of this window, click on the Autosearch settings button. Internet Explorer will open a new window named Customize Autosearch Settings.
  4. In the top part of this window, click on the small down arrow, just below Choose a search provider for address bar searches.
  5. Click on the name of the search engine you want to use.
  6. Click on the OK button to close the Customize Autosearch Settings window.
  7. Click on the OK button to close the Customize Search Settings window.

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Outlook Express...
How to Display the Full Header
of a Mail Message

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 5.

  1. Right-click on the message and then select Properties.
  2. Click on the Details tab.

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Outlook Express...
How to Turn Off HTML in Mail Messages

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6.

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options.
  2. Click on the Send tab.
  3. Under Mail Sending Format, click on Plain Text.
  4. Click on the OK button.

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Outlook Express...
How to Attach a File to a Mail Message

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 5.

  1. Start Outlook Express and prepare a message to send.
  2. Pull down the Insert menu and select File Attachment. Outlook Express will display a new window named Insert Attachment.
  3. Navigate to the file you want to attach.
  4. Click on the name of the file, then click on the Attach button. You will be returned to your message composition window. Below the Subject line, you will see an Attach line with the name of your file.
  5. Complete the message in the regular way. When you are ready to send the message, click on the Send button. The file will be attached to your message.

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Outlook Express...
How to Create a Signature

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 5 and Chapter 13.

There are two ways to create a signature with Outlook Express. Once you create a signature, Outlook Express will append it to the end of all your mail messages as well as any Usenet articles you may post.

The first way to create a signature is to type the signature directly into a particular Outlook Express window. Outlook Express will store the signature for you and let you change it whenever you want.

The second way to create a signature is to store it in a file and tell Outlook Express the location of the signature file. If you like, you can prepare more than one signature file and switch from one to another whenever you want.

To type your signature directly:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options.
  2. Click on the Signatures tab. Outlook Express will show you a new window with three sections: Signature settings, Signatures and Edit Signature.
  3. To the right of the Signatures section, click on the New button.
  4. In the Edit Signature section, select Text, then type the signature you want in the small window to the right.
  5. Click on the OK button.

To create a signature file:

You must use either a text editor or a word processing program. Windows has a built-in text editor, called Notepad, that is perfect for small editing jobs like this. To start Notepad:

  1. Click on the Start button.
  2. Point to Programs, then point to Accessories, then click on Notepad.

If you use a word processor (such as Microsoft Word), be sure to save the data as a text file, not as a document.

To use a signature file once you have created it:

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options.
  2. Click on the Signatures tab. Outlook Express will show you a new window with three sections: Signature settings, Signatures and Edit Signature.
  3. To the right of the Signatures section, click on the New button.
  4. In the Edit Signature section, select File, then specify the name of your file in the small window to the right. (If you would like to navigate to the file, click on the Browse button.)
  5. Once you have specified the name of your signature file, click on the OK button.

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Outlook Express...
How to Resend a Mail Message

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 6.

Outlook Express has no easy way to resend a message. You can forward it, but that makes changes in the body of the message. The only way to resend a message is to create a new message, copy the body of the old message to the new one, and then send the new message.

  1. Open the message you want to resend. (Let's call it the old message.)
  2. Create a brand new message. Either click on the New Mail button, or pull down the File menu, select New, then Mail Message. Outlook Express will open a new window called New Message.

Within that window:

  1. If you want to pass on an interesting message, such as a joke or news article, to a group of people, put your own address in the To line and put all the recipient addresses in the Bcc line. (If you do not see the Bcc line, pull down the View menu and select All Headers.)
  2. If you want to resend the message to only one person, put his or her address in the To line.
  3. In the Subject line, type the subject of the message.
  4. Move to the window that contains the old message.
  5. Click on the body of the message, then select the entire message. (Pull down the Edit menu and select Select All. As a shortcut, you can press Ctrl-A.)
  6. Copy the message to the Windows clipboard. (Pull down the Edit menu and select Copy. As a shortcut, you can press Ctrl- C.)
  7. Move to the window that contains the new message.
  8. Click on the empty area that will hold the body of the new message.
  9. Paste in the old message from the Windows clipboard. (Pull down the Edit menu and select Paste. As a shortcut, you can press Ctrl-V.)
  10. Edit the new message to make it as easy to read as possible. In particular, delete all the superfluous lines.
  11. To send the new message, click on the Send button.

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Outlook Express...
How to Search for a Mail Address

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 6.

  1. Look for the small arrow to the right of the Find button. (The Find button is to the right of the Addresses button.) Click on this arrow and then select People. Outlook Express will display a new window.
  2. Within this window, if the People tab is not on top, click on it.
  3. Select a directory from the list to the right of Look in.
  4. Type a name to the right of the word Name.
  5. To perform the search, click on the Find Now button.

— hint —

Outlook Express offers a number of address directories. Each directory is different, so do not give up until you have searched them all.

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Outlook Express...
How to Configure Your Usenet Newsreader

For more information, see the discussion in Chapter 13.

  1. Pull down the Tools menu and click on Accounts. Outlook Express will create a new window named Internet Accounts.
  2. Click on the News tab.
  3. Click on the Add button and select News.

At this point, you will be led through the configuration procedure.

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